Koje su bogove štovali stari Slaveni?

Foto: Wikimedia Commons

Danas ćemo se pozabaviti osnovama religijskih vjerovanja u starih Slavena prije nego li su prešli na kršćanstvo. Njihova živopisna i maštovita božanstva podsjećaju na likove iz kakvog romana fantastike, a praslavenska religija ukazuje i na duboke kulturalne poveznice svih indoeuropskih naroda.

Drevna slavenska vjerovanja prenosila su se usmeno

Odmah na početku treba istaknuti kako ne postoje konkretni pisani dokazi za rekonstruiranje stare slavenske religije. Slaveni prije prelaska na kršćanstvo, po svemu sudeći, nisu poznavali nikakvo pismo, već su se vjerovanja prenosila usmeno.

Slavenska religija se rekonstruira na temelju malobrojnih arheoloških nalaza, te na temelju pretpostavki koje se baziraju najviše na poredbenoreligijskim, filološkim i etnološkim istraživanjima. Drugim riječima, teoriju o vjerovanju starih Slavena, o kojoj nisu ostala neka konkretna povijesna svjedočanstva, danas gradimo uspoređujući vjerovanja srodnih naroda i njihov razvoj kroz povijest, kao i proučavajući i uspoređujući stare tekstove i narodne običaje.

Ipak, na temelju svih nabrojanih metoda, danas smo u mogućnosti s popriličnom sigurnošću rekonstruirati glavni dio tih drevnih vjerovanja.

Foto: Wikipedia

Oblikovanje slavenske mitologije

Razni slavenski narodi pokrštavani su od 7. do 12. stoljeća, a Hrvati su jedni od prvih naroda koji su prihvatili novu vjeru. Prije toga, svi Slaveni imali su sustav vjerovanja koji se generacijama prenosio i razvijao još iz praindoeuropske kulturne ostavštine.

Stara slavenska vjera razvijala se tijekom nekih 3000 godina, a potječe možda još iz doba neolitika. Mogla bi se okarakterizirati kao paganski skup vjerovanja u kojem su glavna božanstva predstavljala personificirane sile prirode. Bogova koji su se štovali bilo je zaista mnogo, a iako su se ova vjerovanja većinski razvila iz istog kulturalnog praizvora, s vremenom je svaki narod, to jest svako slavensko pleme počelo razvijati vlastita božanstva.

Stara slavenska božanstva

Foto: Wikimedia Commons

I dalje postoje određena neslaganja oko toga koje se božanstvo u ovoj paganskoj religiji štovalo kao vrhovno. Neki predlažu Svaroga, drugi Triglava, no najizgledniji kandidat za vrhovno božanstvo starih Slavena jest Perun. On je bog gromova i munja, boravi na nebu i vladar je života te veliki ratnik. Njegova suprotnost i najveći neprijatelj jest bog Veles, kralj podzemlja i vladar mrtvih.

Postoji značajan mit u kojem Perun uzima Velesu zatočenu stoku. Praktički identičan mit javlja se u staroj vedskoj religiji Indije, u kojem bog gromovnik Indra oslobađa stoku koju je u planini zatočio zmaj Vrtra. Također, vidi se jezična srodnost između imena Peruna i vedskog boga kiše Parjanye.

To je samo jedan od mnogobrojnih dokaza da su stari hrvati i stari Indijci naslijedili svoja narodna vjerovanja od zajedničkog kulturalnog pretka, hipotetske praindoeuropske religije. Osim toga, bog gromovnik se javlja kao jedno od najvažnijih božanstava u cijelom pregrštu starih europskih religija. Sjetite se, primjerice, Zeusa.

Foto: Wikimedia Commons

Božanski panteon

Osim Peruna i Velesa, postoji još cijeli niz važnih božanstava u starom slavenskom panteonu, pa se sad na brzinu pozabavimo onima najvažnijima i najzanimljivijima:

  • Svarog – Bio je bog Sunca (kao vedski Savitar), kao i božanski kovač (kao grčki Hefest). Imao je dva sina – Svarožića, koji je predstavljao vatru na Zemlji, te Daboga, koji je predstavljao vatru na nebu, a bio je bog rata, plodnosti i bog darovatelj.
  • Stribog – Bio je bog oluje i vjetrova kao i bog šume (Stribog = Stribor), a pripisivala mu se ratnička vještina ali i promjenjiva ćud.
  • Svetovid – Bog s četiri glave na bijelome konju, bog snage, ratništva, poštenja i proricanja.
  • Triglav – troglavi bog na crnom konju, božanstvo rata, njegove tri glave predstavljaju nebeski, zemaljski i podzemni svijet.
  • Jarilo – Božanstvo jarosne, razdražljive naravi. Bog je rata, ali i mladosti, proljeća, pupanja i ljubavi.
Foto: Wikipedia
  • Morana – Boginja smrti, zime, a kod nekih i boginja plodnosti. Zna se prikazivati kao crnokosa i blijeda djevojka s vučjim zubima i kandžama. Drugi njezin oblik je onaj stare vještice, Babe Jage.
  • Černobog – Bog zla, nesreće i tame, nastao od Svarogove sjene. Pretpostavlja se da mu je kao suprotnost nekad postojalo i božanstvo Bjelobog, ali za to nema dokaza.
  • Davor – bog rata sa sedam glava i osam mačeva.
  • Kupalo – Božanstvo obilja, uroda i radosti. Njemu u čast u rijeku su se bacale lutke od slame.
  • Lada – Božica proljeća, ljubavi i ljepote.
  • Radogost – Bog gostoprimstva.
  • Vesna – Božica mladosti i proljeća.
Foto: Wikimedia Commons

Kakvi su bili stari Slaveni?

Iz rekonstrukcije stare slavenske mitologije možemo mnogo naučiti i o tome kakvi su ljudi bili stari Slaveni, koje su vrijednosti cijenili, što im je u životu bilo važno i slično.

Tako zaključujemo da su živjeli tijesno povezani s prirodom, svoj su život organizirali prema ritmu prirodnih ciklusa, bojali su se prirodnih pojava i štovali ih. Vjerovali su u neku vrstu zagrobnog života, te u podijelu na dobro i zlo. Iznimno su cijenili hrabrost i ratništvo, ali jednako su cijenili i razdoblja mira i obilja. Veoma su držali do međuljudskih odnosa što pokazuju i njihova božanstva gostoprimstva i darivanja.

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